Computer Architecture & Organization
|Pre-requisites: Computer Basic||3||0||0||3|
This course begins with an introduction to organizational Basic building block diagram of a digital computer system. As the course progresses each major block ranging from Processor to I/O will be discussed in their full architectural detail. The course talks primarily about Computer Organization and Architecture issues, Architecture of a typical Processor, Memory Organization, I/O devices and their interface and System Bus organization etc.
The objective of this course is to:
- explain the organization of the classical von Neumann machine and its major functional Modules.
- explain how an instruction is executed in a classical von Neumann machine.
- provide knowledge of computer system organization and structure through instruction cycles.
- provide knowledge of system interconnection and the different I/O techniques.
- explain the basic concepts of interrupts and how interrupts are used to implement I/O control and data transfers.
- identify various types of buses in a computer system and illustrate how data transfers is performed.
At the end of the course student will be able to:
- understand and analyze computer architecture and organization, computer arithmetic, and CPU design
- understand I/O system and interconnection structures of computer
- understand and analyze different interrupts, I/O techniques, PLDs and memory.
- incorporate independent learning skills and be able to learn more about different computer architectures and hardware.
Unit I: Basic structure of computers
Functional Modules – Basic operational concepts – Bus structures – Software performance – Memory locations and addresses – Memory operations – Instruction and instruction sequencing – Addressing modes – Assembly language – Basic I/O operations– Stacks and queues.
Unit II: Arithmetic Module
Addition and subtraction of signed numbers – Design of fast adders – Multiplication of positive numbers – Signed operand multi-plication and fast multiplication – Integer division – Floating point numbers and operations.
Unit III: Basic processing Module
Fundamental concepts – Execution of a complete instruction – Multiple bus organization – Hardwired control – Micro programmed control – Pipelining – Basic concepts – Data hazards – Instruction hazards – Influence on Instruction sets – Data path and control consideration – Superscalar operation.
Unit IV: Memory System
Basic concepts – Semiconductor RAMs – ROMs – Speed – size and cost – Cache memories – Performance consideration – Virtual memory- Memory Management requirements – Secondary storage.
Unit V: PLD, Memories and Logic Families
Accessing I/O devices – Interrupts – Direct Memory Access – Buses – Interface circuits – Standard I/O Interfaces (PCI, SCSI, USB).
- Computer Organization – Carl Hamacher, Zvonko Vranesic and Safwat Zaky, 5th Edition, McGraw-Hill, 2002.
- Computer Organisation and Design – Patterson, Elsevier Pub. 2009
- Computer Organization and Architecture – Designing for Performance – William Stallings, Pearson Education, 2003.
- Computer Organization and Design: The hardware / software interface – David A.Patterson and John L.Hennessy, Morgan Kaufmann, 2002.
- Computer Architecture and Organization – John P.Hayes, McGraw Hill, 1998.