Surveying is the most useful and necessary part in Civil Engineering. Students will understand the use of Chains, Tapes, Compass, as well as optical surveying instruments such as Theodolite, Total Stations, Auto Levels and Electronic distance measuring machines. Students will also understand reduction of slope measurements to horizontal and vertical components, field data reduction and adjustment of a closed traverse, horizontal and vertical curves and calculation of earthwork volume.
- To teach the students basics of surveying and expose different techniques of surveying.
- To help the students to learn the field applicability of the different survey methods.
- To teach students about types of errors encountered in different types of surveying.
On completion of this course, the students will be able to
- Prepare Topographical maps & surveyed site plans for civil projects.
- They will be able to transfer map/drawing/layout plan on the actual site of civil projects.
- They will be able to estimate the earthwork of civil projects.
- Carry out tachometry, geodetic surveying wherever situation demands.
- Apply error adjustment to the recorded reading to get an accurate surveying output.
Unit I: Plane Surveying
Introduction to plane surveying, conventional tape measurements, electronic distance measurement, Compass surveying, Fore and Back bearing, true and magnetic bearing, magnetic dip and declination, local attraction.
Theodolites– Temporary and Permanent adjustments, horizontal and vertical angle measurements, measurement of magnetic bearing.
Electronic total station- Introduction and determination.
Unit II: Levelling and Contouring
Use of Dumpy level, Tilting level and Auto level. Temporary and Permanent adjustment of Dumpy level.
Differential levelling, Longitudinal & Cross sectional levelling, refraction & curvature correction, Reciprocal levelling. Tachometry– Stadia tachometry(fixed hair method).
Contouring, basics of, characteristics of contours, contour gradient, plotting and use of contours.
Unit III: Plane Table surveying
Introduction, different methods of plane table surveying, two and three point problems as well as mechanical and graphical method for orientation of plane table. Adjustment of closed traverse.
Unit IV: Calculation of Earthwork, Survey adjustments and GPS
Calculation of earth work – Trapezoidal and Prismoidal method.
Surveying adjustments – Principle of least square and adjustment of triangulation figures.
Introduction to Global positioning system – Basics of GPS surveying methods.
Unit VI : Curves
Definitions, designation of curves, elements of simple curve, setting out simple circular curve Introduction to compound and reverse curves
Transition curve – General requirement, super elevation, length of transition curve
Introduction to vertical curves.
Unit VII:Triangulation & Geodetic Surveying
Triangulation, Figure of triangulation, intervisibility height of station and signals. Base line measurement and correction.
Trigonometrical levelling- Simple cases of height and distance.
Geodetic observations- Correction of curvature and refraction, Axis signal correction. Determination of difference in level.
- Punmia B.C, Surveying, Volume 1, Laxmi Publications.
- Punmia B.C. Surveying, Volume 2, Laxmi Publications.
- Punmia B.C. Surveying, Volume 3, Laxmi Publications.
- SatheeshGopi, GPS Principles and Applications, Tata Mc Graw Hill publishing company Ltd.
- Subramaniyan R, Surveying and Levelling, Publication Oxford University Press.
- Kanetkar T.P, Surveying and Levelling, Vol I, Pune.
- Kanetkar T.P, Surveying and Levelling, Vol II, Pune.