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Syllabus | B.Tech Civil Engineering | Soil Mechanics | 13010405



Soil Mechanics

Learning Schedule
13010405 Pre-requisites: Engineering Mechanics 3 0 0 3



The study of soil mechanics is very essential for the safe and economical design of foundation for various civil engineering projects. It has answer to many failures of Civil Structures in past and educated Civil Engineers to provide safe substructures for massive civil engineering projects. Effect of water and air within the soil has given a lot of scope for research. The most important parameters of soil which affect the shear strength of soil are its cohesion and internal friction angles. Concept of stress distribution in soils is obtained by Boussinesq’s equation and Westergaard’s equation. Thus the subject has taken the Civil Engineers to a realistic approach of design of foundation instead of the arbitrary and over safe provision for substructure.



  1. To impart the fundamental concepts of soil mechanics and study of various classification of soil.
  2. To understand and calculate the bearing capacity of substrata for the foundation of various Civil Projects.
  3. To know the importance of index properties like grain size, consistency limits, soil classification.
  4. To understand the concept of compaction and consolidation of soil.



On completion of this course, the students will be able to

  1. Give an engineering classification of a given soil.
  2. Understand the principle of effective stress, and then calculate stresses that influence soil behavior.
  3. Determine soil deformation parameters, and calculate settlement magnitude and rate of settlement.
  4. Specify soil compaction requirements.
  5. To arrive at safe bearing capacity for the design of substructure for Civil Projects



Section A

Unit I: Weight volume relations and Index properties

Distribution of soil in India, Soil – Types, 3-phase diagram, Weight-volume relations, Classification, Index properties ( Atterberg’s limits), Theory of compaction, Importance of geotechnical engineering.

Unit II: Soil water and Permeability

Soil water, Effective and neutral stresses, Flow of water through soils, Permeability, Darcy’s law, Seepage and flow-nets, Quick sand conditions.


Section B

Unit III: Stress distribution in soils

Vertical pressure distribution, Boussinesq’s equation for point load and uniformly distributed loads of different shapes, Newmark’s influence chart, Westergaard’s equation, Isobar diagram, Pressure bulb, Contact pressure, Earth Pressures Theories.


Section C

Unit IV: Compressibility and Consolidation

Compressibility e-log p curve Pre-consolidation pressure, Primary consolidation, Terzaghi’s consolidation theory, Laboratory consolidation test, Determination of Cv by Taylor’s and Casagrande’s methods. Introduction to secondary consolidation.


Section D

Unit V: Shear strength of soils

Stress analysis by Mohr’s circle, Mohr’s strength theory, Shear strength of soils, Mohr’s-Coloumb strength envelope, Laboratory shear tests, Direct shear test, Triaxial compression, Unconfined compression test, Vane shear test, Shear strength of saturated cohesive soils, Shear strength of cohesion less soils, conditions for liquefaction.


Text Books

  1. Dr.K.R.Arora, Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Standard Publishers Distributors, Delhi.
  2. B.C. Punmia, Ashok Kr. Jain, Soil Mechanics and Foundations, Laxmi Publications.
  3. P.C. Varghese, Foundation Design, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.


Reference Books

  1. Gopal Ranjan, A.S.R Rao, Basic and Applied Soil Mechanics, New Age International.
  2. William Powrie, Soil Mechanics: Concepts and Applications, Spon Press.
  3. Karl Terzaghi, Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice, Warren Press.