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Syllabus | B.Tech Civil Engineering | Fluid Mechanics | 13010308

Course Code

Fluid Mechanics

Learning Schedule


3 0 0 3



Fluid mechanics includes fluid statics and dynamics, conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in incompressible flow & flow of a real fluid–including laminar and turbulent flow, dimensional analysis and similitude & the applications to engineering problems.


  1. Introduce concepts, laws, observations, models of fluids at rest and in motion and understanding fluid behaviour for engineering design and control of fluid system for hydraulic structures.
  2. Develop competence with mass, energy and momentum for determining resultant forces on hydraulic structures.
  3. Study of boundary layers and calculation of drag force for practical hydraulic problems.



On completion of this course, the students will be able to

  1. Calculate static and dynamic forces on hydraulic structures.
  2. Determine pressure in a closed conduit carrying fluids.
  3. Determine unknown factors with the help of dimensional analysis.
  4. To calculate the drag forces on a body in a flowing fluid as well as drag forces on a moving body in the fluid with the concept of boundary layer theory.



Section- A

Unit I: Fluid Properties and Hydrostatics

Density, Viscosity, Surface tension, compressibility, capillarity, vapour pressure and cavitation. Hydrostatic forces on plane, inclined and curved surfaces submerged in a fluid.

Buoyancy – Centre of buoyancy & metacentre.

Unit II: Pressure and its measurement

Fluid pressure at a point, Pascal’s law, measurement of pressure- Manometer and Piezometer, Pressure at a point in incompressible fluid.


Unit III: Fluid Kinematics

Introduction to Laminar and Turbulent flow

Fluid Kinematics – Types of flows; Steady flow, Unsteady flow, Uniform and Non Uniform flow, Rotational flow, Irrotational flow, 1-D, 2-D, 3-D flows.

Continuity equation, streamline and velocity potential lines, Euler and Bernoulli’s equations and their applications, moment equation, momentum and energy correction factors, Impulse Momentum equation, Navier-Stokes-Equations and its applications.


Unit IV: Flow through pipes and other fixtures

Flow through orifice, mouth piece, notches and weirs. Discharge measurement- venturimeter, orifice meter, pitot tube.

Flow through pipes i.e. Laminar, Transition and Turbulent flow.

Losses in pipes- Laws of fluid friction, Froud’s experiment, Darcy’s equation, Chezy’s formula, Manning’s formula and Hazen- William’s formula. Major and minor losses.

Pipe network- Hazen Poiseuille equation.

Section- D

Unit V: Boundary layers

Boundary layers, Laminar flow and Turbulent flow, Boundary layer thickness, displacement and momentum thickness, boundary layer separation

Hydraulic Machines- Introduction to centrifugal and reciprocating pumps, turbines.

Unit VI: Dimensional analysis

Dimensional homogeneity, Raleigh and Buckingham π theorems, Model laws; distorted and undistorted models. Similitude-Types of similarities. Types of forces acting on moving fluid and dimension less numbers.

Text Books

  1. K. Bansal, A Textbook of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines. Laxmi Publication.
  2. Subramanian, Fluid Mechanics and hydraulic machines McGraw Hill Book Co.
  3. N. Modi and S. M. Seth, Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics including Hydraulic Machines, Standard Publications.

Reference Books

  1. D.S. Kumar, Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power Engineering, Katson Publishing House.
  2. V.L. Streeter, Fluid Mechanics, McGraw Hill Book Co.