Fluid mechanics includes fluid statics and dynamics, conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in incompressible flow & flow of a real fluid–including laminar and turbulent flow, dimensional analysis and similitude & the applications to engineering problems.
- Introduce concepts, laws, observations, models of fluids at rest and in motion and understanding fluid behaviour for engineering design and control of fluid system for hydraulic structures.
- Develop competence with mass, energy and momentum for determining resultant forces on hydraulic structures.
- Study of boundary layers and calculation of drag force for practical hydraulic problems.
On completion of this course, the students will be able to
- Calculate static and dynamic forces on hydraulic structures.
- Determine pressure in a closed conduit carrying fluids.
- Determine unknown factors with the help of dimensional analysis.
- To calculate the drag forces on a body in a flowing fluid as well as drag forces on a moving body in the fluid with the concept of boundary layer theory.
Unit I: Fluid Properties and Hydrostatics
Density, Viscosity, Surface tension, compressibility, capillarity, vapour pressure and cavitation. Hydrostatic forces on plane, inclined and curved surfaces submerged in a fluid.
Buoyancy – Centre of buoyancy & metacentre.
Unit II: Pressure and its measurement
Fluid pressure at a point, Pascal’s law, measurement of pressure- Manometer and Piezometer, Pressure at a point in incompressible fluid.
Unit III: Fluid Kinematics
Introduction to Laminar and Turbulent flow
Fluid Kinematics – Types of flows; Steady flow, Unsteady flow, Uniform and Non Uniform flow, Rotational flow, Irrotational flow, 1-D, 2-D, 3-D flows.
Continuity equation, streamline and velocity potential lines, Euler and Bernoulli’s equations and their applications, moment equation, momentum and energy correction factors, Impulse Momentum equation, Navier-Stokes-Equations and its applications.
Unit IV: Flow through pipes and other fixtures
Flow through orifice, mouth piece, notches and weirs. Discharge measurement- venturimeter, orifice meter, pitot tube.
Flow through pipes i.e. Laminar, Transition and Turbulent flow.
Losses in pipes- Laws of fluid friction, Froud’s experiment, Darcy’s equation, Chezy’s formula, Manning’s formula and Hazen- William’s formula. Major and minor losses.
Pipe network- Hazen Poiseuille equation.
Unit V: Boundary layers
Boundary layers, Laminar flow and Turbulent flow, Boundary layer thickness, displacement and momentum thickness, boundary layer separation
Hydraulic Machines- Introduction to centrifugal and reciprocating pumps, turbines.
Unit VI: Dimensional analysis
Dimensional homogeneity, Raleigh and Buckingham π theorems, Model laws; distorted and undistorted models. Similitude-Types of similarities. Types of forces acting on moving fluid and dimension less numbers.
- K. Bansal, A Textbook of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines. Laxmi Publication.
- Subramanian, Fluid Mechanics and hydraulic machines McGraw Hill Book Co.
- N. Modi and S. M. Seth, Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics including Hydraulic Machines, Standard Publications.
- D.S. Kumar, Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power Engineering, Katson Publishing House.
- V.L. Streeter, Fluid Mechanics, McGraw Hill Book Co.